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Off topic: 泰晤士(TIMES)四合院儿
论题张贴者: QHE
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Justice vs Righteousness Aug 1, 2015

On justice vs. ‘righteousness’

Nicholas Wolsterstorff, in Justice: Rights and Wrongs (pp. 110-113)
http://www.patheos.com/blogs/slacktivist/2014/07/29/on-justice-vs-righteousness/

“Quaerite autem primum regnum et iustitiam eius et omnia haec adicientur vobis.”
– Matthew 6:33, Vulgate


Those who approach the New Testament solely through English translations face a serious linguistic obstacle to apprehending what these writings say about justice. In most English translations, the word “justice” occurs relatively infrequently. It is no surprise, then, that most English-speaking people think the New Testament does not say much about justice; the Bibles they read do not say much about justice. English translations are in this way different from translations into Latin, French, Spanish, German, Dutch — and for all I know, most languages.

The basic issue is well known among translators and commentators. Plato’s Republic, as we all know, is about justice. The Greek noun in Plato’s text that is standardly translated as “justice” is “dikaiosune;” the adjective standardly translated as “just” is “dikaios.” This same dik-stem occurs around three hundred times in the New Testament, in a wide variety of grammatical variants.

To the person who comes to English translations of the New Testament fresh from reading and translating classical Greek, it comes as a surprise to discover that though some of those occurrences are translated with grammatical variants on our word “just,” the great bulk ofdik-stem words are translated with grammatical variants on our word “right.” The noun, for example, is usually translated as “righteousness,” not as “justice.” In English, we have the word “just” and its grammatical variants coming from the Latin iustitia, and the word “right” and its grammatical variants coming from the Old English recht. Almost all our translators have decided to translate the great bulk of dik-stem words in the New Testament with grammatical variants on the latter — just the opposite of the decision made by most translators of classical Greek.

I will give just two examples of the point. The fourth of the beatitudes of Jesus, as recorded in the fifth chapter of Matthew, reads, in the New Revised Standard Version, “Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they will be filled.” The word translated as “righteousness” is “dikaiosune.” And the eighth beatitude, in the same translation, reads “Blessed are those who are persecuted for righteousness’ sake, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.” The Greek word translated as “righteousness” is “dikaiosune.” Apparently, the translators were not struck by the oddity of someone being persecuted because he is righteous. My own reading of human affairs is that righteous people are either admired or ignored, not persecuted; people who pursue justice are the ones who get in trouble.

It goes almost without saying that the meaning and connotations of “righteousness” are very different in present-day idiomatic English from those of “justice.” “Righteousness” names primarily if not exclusively a certain trait of personal character. … The word in present-day idiomatic English carries a negative connotation. In everyday speech one seldom any more describes someone as righteous; if one does, the suggestion is that he is self-righteous. “Justice,” by contrast, refers to an interpersonal situation; justice is present when persons are related to each other in a certain way.

… When one takes in hand a list of all the occurrences of dik-stem words in the Greek New Testament, and then opens up almost any English translation of the New Testament and reads in one sitting all the translations of these words, a certain pattern emerges: unless the notion of legal judgment is so prominent in the context as virtually to force a translation in terms of justice, the translators will prefer to speak of righteousness.

*** ***


我个人对这段引言的理解是,“justice” 好像更针对体制和系统而言(我觉得 Steve 提议的 “公道” 比较贴切),而 “Righteousness” 蕴含更多道德和价值观的寓意。


[Edited at 2015-08-01 15:08 GMT]


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wherestip  Identity Verified
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Righteousness Aug 1, 2015

QHE wrote:


我个人对这段引言的理解是,“justice” 好像更针对体制和系统而言(我觉得 Steve 提议的 “公道” 比较贴切),而 “Righteousness” 蕴含更多道德和价值观的寓意。



I agree with you, QHE. If we look up "righteousness" or "righteous", most dictionaries explain it as being morally upright.

"仁义" IMO is heavy on the benevolent/kind quality of a person, so I for one don't think it is a good choice.

Which leaves "正义"、"公义", or some other term that has yet to be suggested. Between the two, "正义" would be my choice, partly because I've never heard of "公义" used in this sense until David brought it up.


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wherestip  Identity Verified
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公义 Aug 1, 2015

http://www.cclw.net/soul/jdjxysy/htm/chapter020.html



公义的希伯来文为yasar与mispat,而希腊文为dikaiosune,译作正直、公正与公义。其涵义是说,公义与平正是所有平等与公平的特性,上帝是所有公义与正直的泉源。「他是盘石,他的作为完全,他所行的无不公平,是诚实无伪的上帝,又公义、又正直。」,「上帝岂能偏离公平,全能者岂能偏离公义。」(申卅二4;伯八3)。所有审判的基础是出于上帝,因为,举凡施行公义的作为,都是彰显神的荣耀。「审判的时候,不可看人的外貌,听讼不可分贵贱,不可惧怕人,因为审判是属乎神的。若有难断的案件,可以呈到我这里,我就判断。」,「在上有权柄的,人人当顺服他,因为没有权柄不是出于上帝的,凡掌权的都是上帝所命的。」(申一17;罗十三1)



In Christian circles, "公义" is indeed the accepted translation for "righteousness". This is a blind spot in my Chinese vocabulary mostly attributable to the society being atheistic during my years residing there. My apologies to David and anyone else following the discussion.


[Edited at 2015-08-01 18:11 GMT]


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wherestip  Identity Verified
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... That said Aug 3, 2015

http://baike.baidu.com/view/602078.htm



公义

Righteousness 按照神的标准公平公正。

词语涵义:
可理解为如下几种概念:

一、公平正义 。…

二、社会正义。…

三、按照神的标准公平公正。…



So it is indeed in line with both "righteousness" AND "justice".


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QHE
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Once in a Blue Moon Aug 3, 2015

wherestip wrote:
http://www.cnn.com/2015/07/29/world/blue-moon-july-31-irpt/index.html
Rare blue moon comes Friday
By Jareen Imam, CNN
(CNN)If anything unusual happens to you Friday, you'll be right to say it was "once in a blue moon."

The July 31 appearance of the month's second full moon will be the first such occurrence in the Americas since August 2012. Every month has a full moon, but because the lunar cycle and the calendar year aren't perfectly synched, about every three years we wind up with two in the same calendar month.







The blue moon rises over people gathered on Glastonbury Tor in Somerset, England. Photo by Matt Cardy/Getty Images

[Edited at 2015-08-03 02:00 GMT]

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wherestip  Identity Verified
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Moon over Brooklyn Aug 3, 2015

QHE,

Those wonderful images remind me of this wonderful song sung by Anne Murray ...


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S8plcF1P5GU

Moon Over Brooklyn (Anne Murray)

As I walk around
I see lots of people with their faces to the ground
From all that pressure that's comin' down
And they don't want no misery
And if you've seen enough already
I'm sayin' this to you
There's a moon over Brooklyn
And it's comin' into view

The war in Asia took a heavy toll
The price we paid was etched out in our soul
And now there's a newborn baby lyin' at your door
Can you let him in?
Can you show him more?

So come along with me
I'll show you where the city meets the sky
We'll vow to ne’er, ne’er say goodbye
We won't have to hide
No, anymore
And if we should kiss and fall in love
It would be the right thing to do
'Cause there's a moon over Brooklyn
And it's comin' into view


~*~*~*~*~*

http://www.proz.com/post/1257760#1257760


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blind spot Aug 4, 2015

wherestip wrote: 公义

http://www.cclw.net/soul/jdjxysy/htm/chapter020.html



公义的希伯来文为yasar与mispat,而希腊文为dikaiosune,译作正直、公正与公义。其涵义是说,公义与平正是所有平等与公平的特性,上帝是所有公义与正直的泉源。「他是盘石,他的作为完全,他所行的无不公平,是诚实无伪的上帝,又公义、又正直。」,「上帝岂能偏离公平,全能者岂能偏离公义。」(申卅二4;伯八3)。所有审判的基础是出于上帝,因为,举凡施行公义的作为,都是彰显神的荣耀。「审判的时候,不可看人的外貌,听讼不可分贵贱,不可惧怕人,因为审判是属乎神的。若有难断的案件,可以呈到我这里,我就判断。」,「在上有权柄的,人人当顺服他,因为没有权柄不是出于上帝的,凡掌权的都是上帝所命的。」(申一17;罗十三1)



In Christian circles, "公义" is indeed the accepted translation for "righteousness". This is a blind spot in my Chinese vocabulary mostly attributable to the society being atheistic during my years residing there. My apologies to David and anyone else following the discussion.


[Edited at 2015-08-01 18:11 GMT]


Hi Steve,

Thanks. I'm pleased you've sorted it. Similar terms can be really confusing.

'Justice' and 'Righteousness' are specialized ethical terms. I'd the chance to study ethics of national development and also that of translation and communication before, hence I was a little more sensitive to these terms. It caught my eyes when "righteousness" was mis-translated as 仁义 by someone online, which gave us a decent discussion here.

While the Chinese terms are common in the rest of the world since 1919 till today, they might not even exist in the vocabulary of the ideologically-special China. I've noticed not even 《现代汉语词典》第五版 includes '公义' in its collection. It seems that it is a general blind spot as a whole, so no apology required really.

As the Chinese saying goes, "不知者不罪”

Take care!


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wherestip  Identity Verified
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仁义 Aug 4, 2015

David Lin wrote:

Hi Steve,

Thanks. I'm pleased you've sorted it. Similar terms can be really confusing.

'Justice' and 'Righteousness' are specialized ethical terms. I'd the chance to study ethics of national development and also that of translation and communication before, hence I was a little more sensitive to these terms. It caught my eyes when "righteousness" was mis-translated as 仁义 by someone online, which gave us a decent discussion here.



I agree, David. "仁义" is definitely off-the-mark; by how much depends on an individual's interpretation of this Chinese term.

For me it mostly conveys the meaning of "benevolence".


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pkchan  Identity Verified
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可從兩個不同的層面理解 Aug 4, 2015

Justice 從法律的層面來說,是有公平,公正的意思,而 Righteousness 在道德的層面是正義,公義。兩者都是普世核心價值,一是社會群體的取向,另一是個人道德的追求。在某一社會,Justice 只解釋為司法,這比起網上把 Righteousness 說成是仁義,歧異更甚。

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IBM sells interest in Austin real estate Aug 4, 2015

http://www.bizjournals.com/austin/blog/real-estate/2015/08/a-blockbuster-deal-for-north-austin-ibm-sells.html

A blockbuster deal for North Austin: IBM sells campus near The Domain, more development planned


Rear aerial view of campus buildings, IBM, Austin



...

Brandywine has bought out IBM Corp. at the so-called "Broadmoor" campus at 11501 Burnet Road. It's adjacent to The Domain neighborhood and commercial complex in North Austin and has much more room to grow. Brandywine and its predecessors and IBM (NYSE: IBM) had owned the campus in partnership since 1991.


Brandywine's (NYSE: BDN) announcement of its full acquisition of the IBM Broadmoor campus did not include a purchase price. However, the company's most recent 10Q filing with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission indicates it paid $211.4 million to IBM to buy out their 50 percent interest, which includes seven buildings — some 1.1 million square feet of office space — and 66 developable acres.

Brandywine is proceeding with a master plan to determine the potential for that land. There is no indication that IBM plans to vacate.




[Edited at 2015-08-04 18:18 GMT]


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wherestip  Identity Verified
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Rankings the same after all these years Aug 5, 2015

http://colleges.startclass.com/stories/5231/top-paying-college-majors
"Study what you love,” says your English, history or music professor. Unfortunately, the data suggests taking a different path. Using 2014 data from PayScale, we ranked the 25 college majors that pay the most right after graduation. There’s still some variety here (hint: you don’t have to be a software developer in Silicon Valley), but just know that concert violinists will have a bit less to celebrate than mechanical engineers.

In order to keep the focus on broad, popular subjects, we limited the list to majors offered by at least 100 colleges (leaving us with 76 total majors). Already snagged a bachelor’s degree in anthropology? Congratulations for sticking to what you love. Just don’t think too hard about what could have been.


Chemical Engineering #1
25th percentile: $57,591

Median: $67,270

75th percentile: $76,481
The best-paying major right out of college is chemical engineering, a field that combines the analytical attributes of an engineer with the intellectual rigor of a chemist. Specifically, chemical engineers tend to work on large-scale environmental challenges like energy production, which makes careers in the field both scalable and lucrative.


Electrical Engineering (EE) #2
25th percentile: $54,902

Median: $62,563

75th percentile: $71,787
Even if computer science is all the rage in Silicon Valley, electrical engineers still edge out their software-based counterparts. This also makes sense given the more dangerous nature of electrical engineering. You’re much more likely to accidentally kill yourself rewiring your house than rewriting an application’s code.


Computer Engineering (CE) #3
25th percentile: $54,152

Median: $44,596 (sic)

75th percentile: $62,056
Computer engineers learn how to build both hardware and software, and in many cases, how to integrate the two. The combination allows for students to pursue key, lucrative positions at today’s biggest tech companies.


Mathematics & Computer Science #4
25th percentile: $56,100

Median: $60,614

75th percentile: $73,100
Unlike a standard computer science major, this major provides students with a mathematical anchor, which can help differentiate the average software developer from a highly analytical one.


Mechanical Engineering #5
25th percentile: $51,583

Median: $59,062

75th percentile: $67,493
Coding apps and programming websites might be trendy, but building machines is still a huge industry. As a result, mechanical engineering majors enjoy the fifth-best starting salaries.

...




[Edited at 2015-08-06 09:49 GMT]


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U.S. College Admission at All Cost Aug 5, 2015

http://edition.cnn.com/2015/07/12/asia/china-education-agencies/



Fraud frenzy? Chinese seek U.S. college admission at any price
By Shen Lu and Katie Hunt, CNN
Updated 9:25 PM ET, Tue July 14, 2015

...

With the promise of English-language fluency, a U.S. college education is increasingly attractive for many students and employers. And as Chinese incomes grow, more affordable for parents.
Using agents or consultancies to apply to college has been a common practice since U.S. universities and colleges started recruiting in China extensively about eight years ago.

In many cases, they offer much-needed help and advice to Chinese students and their parents, who know little about navigating the complexities of U.S. college admissions, says Yu Huiming, a freelance educational consultant.
In China, admission is based on a single test -- many are baffled by the need for extra curricular activities, and Yu says that most Chinese high-school teachers are unable to write letters of recommendation in English.

"For average high school students, if their parents have no knowledge of college application, they do need help from a third party," he says.
The Institute of International Education says Chinese students now make up almost one in three international students on American campuses.
But there are growing concerns that these agencies -- many unregulated -- are going much further than extending a helping hand.

...




[Edited at 2015-08-05 12:40 GMT]


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Culture Clash in Iowa Aug 5, 2015

http://www.cnn.com/interactive/2015/07/us/culture-clash-american-story/



CULTURE CLASH IN IOWA
the town where bubble tea shops outnumber Starbucks

Story by Wayne Drash, CNN
Video by Jackson Loo, CNN


http://www.cnn.com/videos/us/2015/07/02/orig-university-of-iowa-chinese-students-great-american-stories.cnn/video/playlists/great-american-stories/


From the intimate to the ordinary, life in this Midwestern college town is changing. The iconic Hamburg Inn, the diner where presidential candidates have stumped for decades, still dishes up its famous "pie shakes." But take a closer look:

Bubble tea shops outnumber Starbucks 3 to 1, and nearly 1 in 10 students at the University of Iowa hails from China.

Iowa City has gone global.

Stroll to the Old Capitol Mall on any given day and you'll see a lunchtime crowd from faraway cities like Beijing, Shanghai, Dalian, Shenzhen and Wuhan. Take note of the cars that pass you. Mixed in with the souped-up Ford F-250s and Dodge Ram pickups preferred by natives are Maseratis, BMWs, Audis and Mercedes-Benzes. You might even glimpse a Lamborghini or a Ferrari.

Chinese students pay an estimated $70 million a year in tuition to the University of Iowa and pump an estimated $100 million into the local economy. They've become such a financial boon they help subsidize the education of their American peers.

The dramatic rise in Chinese students -- from a few hundred in 2000 to more than 2,500 today -- has brought culture shock and a series of major challenges.

A lack of dorm space resulted in hundreds of students, most of them from China, being warehoused eight at a time on beds in dorm lobby areas for weeks, even months. Segregation within the classroom became common. Many Chinese students struggled to speak English and cope with the demands of English-based curriculum. Professors grumbled about how to teach in that environment.

These issues still reverberate across campus.

A mandatory program last fall meant to help international students better understand American culture failed miserably.

...




[Edited at 2015-08-05 13:28 GMT]


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QHE
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阳早和寒春一家 Aug 5, 2015

长在红旗下的美国人
作者:南方周末记者 张哲 实习生 张丹彤 张一龙

美国人阳和平的父母被外界誉为“白求恩式的共产主义战士”,母亲寒春在中国养奶牛62年,父母在中国的理想和践行孕育了他的精神河床。

他在中国接受马列主义,在美国接受西方主流思想,两种思想老打架。他困惑了好长时间:“很多人都是从信仰危机的深渊里爬出来,有人爬到左岸,有人爬到右岸。我爬到左岸去了。”

http://www.infzm.com/content/48541



阳和平(前左),阳及平(前中),阳建平(前右),阳早(后左),寒春(后右) (阳和平/图)




[Edited at 2015-08-05 23:57 GMT]

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寒春 Aug 6, 2015

寒春, a.k.a. Joan Hinton.

http://www.worldlibrary.org/articles/joan_hinton



JOAN HINTON

Joan Hinton (Chinese name: 寒春, Pinyin: Hán Chūn; 20 October 1921 – 8 June 2010)[1] was a nuclear physicist and one of the few female scientists who worked for the Manhattan Project in Los Alamos. She lived in the People's Republic of China after 1949, where she and her husband Erwin (Sid) Engst participated in China’s efforts at developing a socialist economy, working extensively in agriculture. She lived on a dairy farm north of Beijing before her death on June 8, 2010.

FAMILY BACKGROUND
Her father, Sebastian Hinton, was a lawyer (who also was the inventor of the jungle gym[2]); her mother, Carmelita Hinton, was an educator and the founder of The Putney School, an independent progressive school in Vermont. Her sister, Jean Hinton Rosner (1917–2002), was a civil rights and peace activist. Joan Hinton's great-grandfather was the mathematician George Boole; Ethel Lilian Voynich, a great-aunt, was the author of The Gadfly, a novel later read by millions of Soviet and Chinese readers.

NUCLEAR SCIENTIST
Joan Hinton studied physics at Bennington College and the University of Wisconsin.[3] She observed the Trinity test at Alamogordo and wrote about it:
“It was like being at the bottom of an ocean of light. We were bathed in it from all directions. The light withdrew into the bomb as if the bomb sucked it up. Then it turned purple and blue and went up and up and up. We were still talking in whispers when the cloud reached the level where it was struck by the rising sunlight so it cleared out the natural clouds. We saw a cloud that was dark and red at the bottom and daylight at the top. Then suddenly the sound reached us. It was very sharp and rumbled and all the mountains were rumbling with it. We suddenly started talking out loud and felt exposed to the whole world.”
Joan Hinton was shocked when the US government, three weeks later, dropped nuclear bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. She left the Manhattan Project and lobbied the government in Washington to internationalise nuclear power.

MOVING TO CHINA
Her brother William H. Hinton (1919–2004), a sociologist, had travelled to China for the first time in 1937 and observed the land reform in the communist-occupied areas. (He would thirty years later publish Fanshen about his findings, a book that became very successful in the US.)
In March 1948, Joan Hinton travelled to Shanghai, worked for Soong Qingling, the widow of President Sun Yat-sen, and tried to establish contacts with the Chinese communists. She witnessed the communists gaining control of Beijing in 1949 and moved to Yan'an, where she married Erwin Engst, who had been working in China since 1946. They worked at a farm near Xi'an and moved to Beijing to work as translators and editors at the beginning of the Cultural Revolution in 1966.
During the Cold War, some Americans considered her to have betrayed the United States, as a nuclear physicist who went to China and took part in its revolution. However, what most Americans did not realize, according to Hinton, is that she and her husband were working in agriculture on a tiny commune in a remote part of China, without electricity or even radios.[4]
On August 29 (or in June, according to another source), 1966, Joan Hinton, Erwin Engst and two other Americans living in China—Bertha Sneck (Shǐ Kè 史克, who had previously been married to Joan’s brother William) and Ann Tomkins (Tāngpǔjīnsēn 汤普金森)—signed a poster put up at the Foreign Experts Bureau in Beijing with the following text:
Which monsters and freaks are pulling the strings so foreigners get this kind of treatment? Foreigners working in China, no matter what class background they have, no matter what their attitude is toward the revolution, they all get the “five nots and two haves”: the five nots—first: no physical labour, second: no thought reform, third: no chances of contacts with workers and peasants, fourth: no participation in class struggle, fifth: no participation in production struggle; the two haves—first: they have an exceptionally high living standard, second: they have all kinds of specialisation. What kind of concept is that? This is Khrushchevism, this is revisionist thinking, this is class exploitation! (...) We demand: (...) Seventh: the same living standard and the same level of Chinese staff; eighth: no specialisation any more. Long live the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution!
A copy of the poster was shown to Mao Zedong, who issued a directive that “revolutionary foreign experts and their children should be treated the same as the Chinese.”
In 1972, Joan Hinton and Erwin Engst started working in agriculture again at the Beijing Red Star Commune.
In June 1987, William Hinton went to the town of Dazhai in Shanxi province to observe the changes brought about by the reform policies, and in August 1987, Joan Hinton stayed at Dazhai as well.
In a 1996 interview with CNN, after nearly 50 years in China, she stated “[we] never intended to stay in China so long, but were too caught up to leave.”[4] Hinton described the changes she and her husband had witnessed in China since the beginning of the economic reforms of Deng Xiaoping in the late 1970s. They stated they “have watched their socialist dream fall apart” as much of China embraced capitalism. A 2004 MSNBC interviews noted her critical assessment of economic change as “betrayals of the socialist cause.”[5] She noted what she describes as a rise of exploitation in Chinese society.
Hinton lived alone following the death of her husband in 2003. Her three children moved to the United States, with Hinton noting that “They probably would have stayed if China were still socialist.” Hinton retained her American citizenship, which she considered “convenient for travel.” [5] Her son, Yang Heping (Fred Ernst) moved back to Beijing in 2007 as a professor at the University of International Business and Economics.
In her 2005 essay “The Second Superpower”,[6] Hinton stated, “There are two opposing superpowers in the world today: the U.S. on one side, and world public opinion on the other. The first thrives on war. The second demands peace and social justice.”
She remained active in the small community of expats in Beijing, protesting against the war in Iraq.



As it happens, I was schoolmates with 寒春's niece Carma Hinton(韩倞). Same as Fred Engst(阳和平), Carma Hinton was also born in Beijing. She and I attended 101中 the same time. She was in 六班 while I was in 二班. Incidentally, the foreign language curriculum for 四、五、六班 was Russian, while ours (一、二、三班) was English.



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carma_Hinton

Carma Hinton (Chinese: 韩倞; pinyin: Hán jìng, born 1949) is a documentary filmmaker and Clarence J. Robinson Professor of Visual Culture and Chinese Studies at George Mason University.[1] She worked with Richard Gordon in directing thirteen documentary films about China, including Morning Sun and The Gate of Heavenly Peace. She has also taught at Swarthmore College, Wellesley College, MIT, and Northeastern University and has lectured on Chinese culture, history, and film around the world.

Hinton was born to American parents in Beijing, China and was raised speaking Chinese as her first language. She attended Beijing's prestigious 101 Middle School before leaving the country when she was twenty-one.[2] Hinton attended Harvard University where she earned a Ph.D. in art history.




[Edited at 2015-08-07 12:40 GMT]


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